Friday, April 10, 2009

White-rumped Shama -Murai batu

White-rumped Shama
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
White-rumped Shama
Male White-rumped Shama
Male White-rumped Shama
Conservation status

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Muscicapidae
Genus: Copsychus
Species: C. malabaricus
Binomial name
Copsychus malabaricus
(Scopoli, 1788)

Kittacincla macrura
Cittocincla macrura

The White-rumped Shama (Copsychus malabaricus) is a small passerine bird of the family Muscicapidae. It was formerly classified as a member of the Thrush family, Turdidae, causing it to be commonly known as the White-rumped Shama Thrush or simply Shama Thrush.


They are native to South and Southeast Asia, but have been introduced to Kaua'i, Hawai'i, in early 1931 from Malaysia (by Alexander Isenberger), and to O'ahu in 1940 (by the Hui Manu Society).[2] Their popularity as a cage bird has led to many escaped birds establishing themselves.[3]

In Asia, their habitat is dense undergrowth especially in bamboo forests.[4] In Hawaii, they are common in valley forests or on the ridges of the southern Ko'olaus, and tend to nest in undergrowth or low trees of lowland broadleaf forests.[2]

The nominate race is found in the Western Ghats and parts of southern India while leggei is found in Sri Lanka. Race indicus is found in the northern parts of India.[4] Race albiventris is found in the Andaman Islands, interpositus from southwester China to Myanmar, Thailand and the Mergui Archipelago. Southern China has race minor while mallopercnus is found in the Malay peninsula. Race tricolor is found in the Sumatra, Java, Banka, Belitung and Karimata islands. Race mirabilis from the Sunda Strait, melanurus from northwestern Sumatra, opisthopelus, javanus, omissus, ochroptilus, abbotti, eumesus, suavis (Borneo), nigricauda, stricklandii and barbouri are the other island forms.

Physical Characteristics

They typically weigh between 1 and 1.2 ounces and are around 9 to 11 inches in length. Males are glossy black with a chestnut belly and white feathers on the rump and outer tail. Females are more grayish-brown, and are typically shorter than males. Both sexes have a black bill and pink feet. Juveniles have a more grayish or brownish coloration, similar to that of the females, with a blotchy or spotted chest.

The white-rumped shama is shy and somewhat crepuscular[4] but very territorial. The territories include a male and female during the breeding season with the males defending the territory averaging 0.09 ha in size,[2] but each sex may have different territories when they are not breeding.

The voice of this species is rich and melodious which made them popular as cage birds in South Asia with the tradition continuing in parts of Southeast Asia. It is loud and clear, with a variety of phrases, and often mimics other birds. They also make a 'Tck' call in alarm or when foraging.[2] One of the first recordings of a bird ever made was of this species. A recording was made from a captive individual in 1889 using an Edison wax cylinder by Ludwig Koch of Germany.[5]

They feed on insects in the wild but in captivity feed on boiled and dried legumes with egg yolk and raw meat.[6]

In South Asia, they breed from January to September but mainly in April to June laying a clutch of four or five eggs[7] in a nest placed in the hollow of tree.[4] During courtship, males pursue the female, alight above the female, give a shrill call, and then flick and fan out their tail feathers. It is followed by a rising and falling flight pattern by both sexes. It the male is unsuccessful, the female will threaten the male, gesturing with the mouth open.

The nest is built by the female alone while the male stands guard.[2][8] The nests are mainly made of roots, leaves, ferns, and stems, and incubation lasts between 12 and 15 days and the nestling period averaged 12.4 days. Both adults feed the young although only the female incubates and broods.[2] The eggs are white to light aqua, with variable shades of brown blotching, and are approximately 0.7 by 0.9 inchesReferences

1. ^ BirdLife International (2006). Copsychus malabaricus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.
2. ^ a b c d e f Aguon, Celestino Flores & Sheila Conant (1994) Breeding biology of the white-rumped Shama on Oahu, Hawaii. Wilson Bull. 106(2):311-328 PDF
3. ^ Bao-Sen Shieh, Ya-Hui Lin, Tsung-Wei Lee, Chia-Chieh Chang and Kuan-Tzou Cheng (2006) Pet Trade as Sources of Introduced Bird Species in Taiwan. Taiwania, 51(2): 81-86 PDF
4. ^ a b c d Rasmussen PC & JC Anderton (2005) Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. Smithsonian Institution & Lynx Edicions. p. 395-396
5. ^ Ranft, Richard (2004) Natural sound archives: past, present and future. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 76(2):456-460 doi:10.1590/S0001-37652004000200041
6. ^ Jerdon, T. C. (1863) Birds of India. Vol 2. part 1. page 131
7. ^ Whistler, H (1949) Popular handbook of Indian birds. Gurney and Jackson. p. 110
8. ^ Ali, S. and S. D. Ripley 1973. Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. Vol. 8., Oxford Univ. Press, Bombay, India.

courtessy fr.


Anonymous said...

Is this where I should post my intro?. Folks, you can call me Andy. I like --- natural cures --- this is really interesting [url=]cure for menopause[/url].I am happy to researching more about this site [img][/img]

Anonymous said...

Yo! Remarkable post! I am a daily visitor (much more like addict :P) of the website however I had a difficulty. I am only not at all certain whether its the right site to question, but you've got no spam comments. I get comments similar to UITrkbTexas ColocationzytDozk everyday. Could you assist me? Thanks for the tips.

Anonymous said...

I love! Here I always find a lot of helpful information for myself. Thanks you for your work.
Webmaster of and
Best regards

Anonymous said...

poglejte si tole [url=]Pohodna obutev[/url]

Anonymous said...

Hi there, just turned into alert to your blog via Google, and found that it is really informative. I am going to watch out for brussels. I will appreciate in the event you proceed this in future. A lot of other people might be benefited from your writing. Cheers!
Beautty locality. Thanks!
[url= ]free cam sex[/url]
[url=]live sex cam[/url]
[url=]pornofilme Solo Girls [/url]

Anonymous said...

HI, I just joined this community. I m from China. I like this forum.......hope to learn lot of things here ;-)


Anonymous said...

Very good web log, appears brilliant. Take a look at notice it status on the web in fact, you’re going to need to start building hyperlinks.

Anonymous said...

I congratulate, your idea simply excellent

[url=] adsl2+ modem [/url]
[url=]exigoo nextech classifieds backpage dickinson nd only [/url]
[url=]exigoo classifieds oodles and oodles of ramen noodles free ads chennai [/url]
[url=]exigoo free ads free adsl classifieds ny [/url]
[url=]exigoo free ads olx rj backpage nj [/url]

Anonymous said...

This is the best website for [url=]PKV[/url]

Anonymous said...

I'm very happy to read this. This is the type of manual that needs to be given and not the random misinformation that is at the other blogs. Appreciate your sharing this best doc.
[url= ]pink ribbon merchandise[/url]

Anonymous said...

Hi there, for all time i used to check blog posts here in the early hours in
the dawn, since i enjoy to gain knowledge of more and more.
My page ; naked girls

Anonymous said...

My brother suggested I may like this blog. He used to be entirely right.
This publish actually made my day. You can not believe simply how so much time I had spent for this info!
Also see my web site - Videos